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2003/04/17 10:00
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Dan Bricklinが4月14日に、「How will the artists get paid?」という長い論考を彼のウェブ上に発表した。アップルのユニバーサル買収報道に刺激されての発表だろう。これは絶対に一読の価値がある。別のことを書こうと思っていたが、今日もこの話にしよう。



「There is a lot of controversy about digital media, copy protection, fair use, and internetworking. In most cases from the viewpoint of legislators trying to react to lobbyists, as I understand it, it boils down to one question: How will the artists get paid? My answer is simple: The same way artists have always gotten paid. Let's examine that issue to see how it applies to today's world.」







「What motivates artists? For some it is just expressing themselves, no matter what others think. For some it is the joy of practicing their craft. For some, it is the "high" that comes from playing in front of an audience. For some, it is having their work appreciated and continue on in the hands of others. Finally, for some it is a way to earn a living and pursue riches. For many it is a combination.」


「For the artist, that would be by letting them create their art and be able to reasonably make a living. The pursuit of happiness for all of us, in many respects, depends upon the artists being able to share their works with the rest of us, and us being able to use those works in ways that bring us happiness. The best benefit to society is when the most appreciated art is available for use by as much of society as possible. For the artists themselves, the best benefit is when they meet their personal goals of expression, practice, having an audience, appreciation, and material wealth.」


そして、アーティストにとっての「The means to getting paid」を3つに分類する。PerformanceとPatronageとCommissionである。


Copyrightは、第1分類Performanceの一形態として定義される。Performanceの基本は画家の絵や彫刻を所有したり、演奏家のライブを聞きに行ったりという「the physical nature of the art provides exclusivity」、つまり、排他的・独占的な権利の代償として報酬が支払われることだ。

「Through laws, we have added additional, non-physical exclusivities to provide additional opportunities for performance payment, providing additional means to earn a living for a wider range of artists. For example, copyright laws let song writers have a way to get paid for performance during a limited (but sufficiently long to have economic meaning) time.」

ここからかなり長い文章でこの3分類の特徴と例が書かれているが、「Free release」という節に飛ぼう。



「In many cases, artists' work ends up being appreciated and used by a wider range of people than those that gave them money. An artist whose work is too confined usually does not do as well from their own, nor society's, view. Unpaid or unplanned exposure to an artist's work is often the source that leads to a patron or other income. Without exposure, there is no audience, no appreciation, and no reuse where your work lives on (the "most sincere form of flattery", which is a motivator for many). Without free exposure, many people without means or who do not know of an art form or of an artist's work would not be inspired to become artists themselves.」


「Unpaid or unplanned exposure」こそが、Patronやその他の収入に結びつく。

「Free exposure」の、「収入を得る」ことにつながるという意味での積極的意義を主張するわけだ。

むろん、ビジネスの世界をなくしたらいいというわけではない。個人とビジネスの間にきちんと線を引き、そのバランスをとることが重要だ。「This use of a mixture of payments」を上手にデザインして、我々の既存の社会だって成り立っているではないか。

「The needs of the "commercial" or "professional" or "public" arena have helped balance out this free release. We can hum a new song we like for free, or even sing it along with friends around a campfire, but we can't use it in a TV commercial without paying the author. A photograph copied from a web site works fine for a child's term paper, but only the original high resolution version may suffice for a magazine, which would have staff to arrange for payment.」



「Fan bases are an important element for many types of art. These are the people who know and appreciate the particular artist's work, and seek it out. They are more likely to pay for "performances" of all sorts, be patrons or sponsors, decide to use that artist for commissioned work, etc. Knowing that they have a fan base, an artist can plan for the future, creating new works without upfront payment. The fan base can provide the people that satisfy the need to have an audience and appreciation.」


そして、「different types and needs for payment」こそが、アーティストが未来のファンによって発見されるプロセスを提供するもので、結局はファンベースを作る決定的要因なのである。

「Crucial to this ecosystem of different types and needs for payment is the discovery of the artist by people who would be users, and perhaps become part of the fan base and payers for performance, patrons, and commissioners.」


「The fact that there is free release is a key aspect of the ecosystem of art. The free release results not only in discovery, but also in use by other artists, resulting in yet more art. Free release is not the only source of discovery and other art, but it is a component that must not be ignored or eliminated.」

ここまでの彼の理論を、現在にあてはめるのが、最後の節「Today's world」である。



「A problem with much of today's pre-recorded media art (such as sound recordings and movies) is the method of discovery.」

「Introduction to new artists and their work is done through advertising, paid placement (narrow radio and TV play lists), and other mass marketing techniques. These are very expensive, and the difficulty of rising above the noise becomes yet more and more expensive.」

「A few big hits are viewed as more important than a myriad of small ones, each with a happy artist and happy fans. There seems to be a drive to create a few "superstars" instead of many full-time artists.」


「Small fan bases, even if solid and large enough to fully fund the artist themselves with a very acceptable life compared to other professions, do not fit in this model.」


「Technology is making the cost of practicing many types of art less expensive. For example, recording and editing equipment of high quality that used to cost hundreds of thousands or millions of dollars is becoming something even a hobbyist can afford and use. Manufacturing and distribution of many media forms is becoming almost cost free. Communications to a widely dispersed fan base has dropped to a minor cost as mailing and the need for advertising is replaced with email and web sites.」


そしてDRM(Digital Right Management)こそが「諸悪の根源」だという、シリコンバレーのコンセンサスに行き着く。DRMはアートの生態を殺すものだ。DRMは大資本に利する以外、何の利もないと主張する。

「Something that bothers me about the talk about Digital Rights Management (DRM), both technical and legislative, is the whole disregard for the ecosystem needed for widespread advancement of the arts. The freeform of a variety and a mixture of funding models, and the benefits of unintended free release, are part of what makes things work with art and society. Responding to opportunities that present themselves requires flexibility. The DRM systems we hear about today are rigid procrustean beds that could kill this ecology. They are wedded to narrow, simplistic business models, dominated by large publishing businesses.」


「An ecosystem with many ways for unintended free-release is a requirement. Therefore, an ecosystem which looks to a mixture of the traditional amateur, performance, patronage, and commission forms of payment is a requirement. Depending upon rigid enforcement of performance payments will disrupt the balance.」


「Listening to representatives from the recording and movie industries, you would think that selling fixed artifacts is the only way that artists can get paid. That has never been the case, and should not be in the future or else society and art itself will suffer. Those publishing businesses may be based on that one form of payment, but the artists' livelihood need not.」

この論考は、ビジョナリーDan Bricklinの、ジョブズに宛てた強いメッセージなのだろう。この考え方を基本に、既存音楽業界の「破壊と創造」をやってくれと。そして、ジョブズももうこの文章を読んだに違いないと思う。

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